Sunday, December 29, 2019
Probably the single most influential and certainly the best-known crime theory among all the sociological theories of crime is that of strain theory. Strain theories argue that there are certain socially generated pressures or forces that drive people to commit crimes. More specifically, the classic strain theories argue that people, particularly those of lower class status are pressured into crime when they are prevented from achieving cultural goals like monetary success or middle-class status through legitimate status. Among the classic strain theorists the best known is Robert K. Merton. Merton rejected the notion still popular at the time of his writing that deviant motivations were rooted in the biology or psychology of theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These individuals are then compelled to outside of the norms in their effort to achieve the culturally defined desired ends. In other words, prevented by lack of skills, education, lower social status, or even discrimination from achieving the socially defined goals such as tangible material success, these individuals are pressured into crime which emerges as the only way to achieve those goals. In other words, Merton theorized the that the absence of a rigid class structure in the U.S., and the compellingly widespread belief that all Americans, regardless of their present status in life, had the opportunity to amass material worth, coupled with the dominant aspirational reference of wealth, put incredible pressure (strain) on those who encountered real barriers as they moved towards those universal goals to find some way even if it was illegal or deviant to obtain what they were led to believe were the important goals. On the other hand, a poor person in a society which had rigid class structures would not feel the same pressure to commit illegal acts since he would an aspirational reference more suitable to his current stature. In their work, Delinquency and Opportunity, Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin drew on strain theory and CohenÃ¢â¬â¢s subculture theory to help explain the development of delinquent subcultures. Cloward Ohlin argued that deviance ordinarily repres ents a search for solutions to problems of
Saturday, December 21, 2019
Abortion Abortion has been an issue since 1820. In the beginning the problem was more about protecting doctors who have licenses. Ã¢â¬Å"Regular doctors thus had an incentive to ban abortion as part of an effort to drive irregular doctors many of whom were women out of businessÃ¢â¬ (Straggenborg, p.211). The AMA (American Medical Association), which was the group that the regular doctors made, started a campaign that made the people believe that the white population was getting smaller and the population of the immigrants was rising. Abortions were made illegal to insure the stability of the population of American citizens. It seems odd that the only reason that abortions were made illegal at one point was because of money issues and a lustÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As well if it were to be illegal, looking at the past history we can almost be sure that women would still go out and have abortions. Though, these abotions would not be safe and would most probably be costly. If aborti ons were legal then the question at hand is then who has the Ã¢â¬Å"personhoodÃ¢â¬ rights, or atleast who has more rights. Does the unborn child, if you consider it a child at not even 3 months, have more rights than the woman carrying the baby? Does the father have a decision if this child should be born or not? When looking into this matter one must first extinguish at what point is it a baby with his or her own rights. Does he or she from the moment of conceptionhave rights when he or she is merely in the stage of splitting into different cells? These are all important issues, that lead into one big question of whether or not the women should be allowed to have an abortion even at any cost. No matter what stage in the pregnancy . . . no matter what the reason behind her decision . . . is it essentially the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s full choice? These issues are discussed among many different groups of people. There are a vast number of pro-choice organizations out there that speak on behalf of the women involved in abortions. They speak on behalf of the rights of the women who chooses to carry the child, or who chooses to give it up for adoption, or who raise it themselves. Especially children, it seems to be a fact that, Ã¢â¬Å"Each year, one millionShow MoreRelatedAbortion : Abortion And Abortion998 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAbortion Abortion is defined in several ways all of which stop a pregnancy. There are different ways of abortion, which are spontaneous abortion, surgical abortion, and medical abortion. Abortion has been arguable topic for decades. One can neither believe abortion to be good nor bad. The idea of individuality and human life is not quite the same. Idea of human life has come from conception; simultaneously on the other hand, fertilizer eggs used for in vitro fertilization are also human lives butRead MoreAbortion : Abortion And Abortion Essay921 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPaper: Abortion Laws The topic of abortion is a widely debated and very heated topic in Texas. The Republican partyÃ¢â¬â¢s platform supports family values and are completely against abortion under any circumstances, including abortifacients. The Democrat partyÃ¢â¬â¢s platform supports the rights for women to make choices about their own bodies. They support abortifacients and a personÃ¢â¬â¢s right to have an abortion. There is also a large percentage of those that are in the middle in that they believe abortion shouldRead MoreAbortion, The, And Abortion998 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the United States there are more than a billion abortions performed each year. Since the court case Roe vs Wade in 1973 more than 56 million babies have been murdered in the United States before they had the chance to take their first breath (Snyder, Michael). These statics along with many more show the huge injustice that is happening in the country I call home. Abortion is defined as the removal of an embryo or fetus from the uterus in order to end a pregnancy. It can include any of variousRead MoreAbortion : Abortion And Anti Abortion1624 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesa very large controversy between the ideas about abortion and anti-abortion. Different religious views, beliefs, peoples many different customs and even people of different cultures all have their own preferences and ideas on the take of this political issue. Views against abortion can lead to as much of an impact as a violent/non violent riots outside of an abortion clinics, to something as simple article in the newspaper. The belief on abortion that leads to a lot of the controversy is that inRead MoreAbortion, The, And Abortion Essay1656 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages An abortion is when the pregnancy of a women is ended; it is called sometimes Termination of pregnancy. There are two types of abortion. The first type is the spontaneous abortion; it occurs within the first two months. What causes it is frequently unknown yet is probably the results of intra-uterine contamination, or limited attachment in the building unborn child to the interior coating walls in the womb (uterus). Such conditions this unborn child, if the idea advances further, mayRead MoreAbortion, The, And Abortion953 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdebates that is constantly talked about is abortion. When it comes to abortion, the laws vary depending on the state you live in. Whether people support or are against abortion, few actually know about the abortion process. Have you ever heard of suction aspiration or prostaglandin chemical abortion? Those are two of the various methods that are performed in the different trimesters of pregnancy. According to writer Steven Ertelt of Li feNews.com, OklahomaÃ¢â¬â¢s abortion laws are restrictive compared to otherRead MoreAbortion : Abortion And Abortion1930 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAbortion has been around for quite some time. Laws have been set allowing it and banning it during different periods of time. The procedures that can be done are all very different. There is a medical abortion involving drugs and there are surgical abortion involving a more invasive procedure. There are also different points of view on it. There are those who fully support the termination of a pregnancy and those who are completely against it. There are many factors to consider and very differentRead MoreAbortion : The Fight For Abortion1543 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAlthough abortion was decriminalized in 1973, the fight for abortion rights did not end with Roe v. Wade. Just in the past three years, there have been systematic restrictions on abortion rights sweeping the country sate by state. In 2013, 22 states enacted 70 antiabortion meas ures, including pre-viability abortion bans, unnecessary doctor and clinic procedures, limits on medicated abortion, and bans on insurance coverage of abortion In 2011, 92 abortion restrictions were enacted, an in 2012, thatRead MoreAbortion : The Issue Of Abortion1212 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe topic of abortion has been an ongoing debate for many years. According to ProChoice.org, abortion was legal in in the days of the early settlers. At the time that the constitution was adopted abortions were legal. Abortions were openly advertised and performed before the first fetal movement (13-16 weeks from the start of a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s last period). The concern for abortion started in the late 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s when immigrants were coming into the country in large numbers and the fear was that they would produceRead MoreIs Abortion Wrong? Abortion?1321 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIs Abortion Wrong? There continues to be a hot debate on abortion. Some people feel that this issue is neither right nor wrong, just simply a Ã¢â¬Å"to each his ownÃ¢â¬ idiom. Those who are for abortion, tend to believe a woman has a right to decide what goes in her body and if she is capable of bringing life into this world. On the other side, there is an equal fervent opposition that killing an innocent unborn baby is wrong and unjustly, murder in the first degree of a helpless baby. Not only are they
Friday, December 13, 2019
string(75) " frequency with which they report that they support a political candidate\." Analysis of Home Safety of the Elderly Living in City and Rural Areas 1. Absract Physiological changes and chronic diseases arising during aging process increase risk of accident of the elderly, especially the elderly living alone at their homes. Home accidents are the most commonly health problem in the elderly. We will write a custom essay sample on Analysis of Home Safety of the Elderly Living in City and Rural Areas or any similar topic only for you Order Now This study was carried out to describe home safety of the elderly living in a city or rural area using a home safety checklist. 512 living in Turkey (330 in city; 182 in rural area) were evaluated via face-to-face interview using a home safety checklist during a period between December and March in 2007. In addition to sociodemographics, a questionnaire including home characteristics and life style of participants was applied. To describe home safety level, Home Safety Checklist was used. 2-Introduction Aging, which is a part of life and a nonrecoverable process. Developments in the field of tecnology,health and nutrition increasing life expectancy in the general population has led to an increased incidence of elderly population. Especially in industrialized countries, this increase is faster. The increase in elderly population by bringing with it social problems, particularly affecting the family structure of the elderly living alone is cause Depending on the time during the aging process in human organism, physical, physiological and psychological changes are emerging. Decrease with aging occur in the physical abilities, to continue their activities of daily living and home-related poses an obstacle to the execution of work. Physiological changes and the age of progress emerged due to chronic diseases, especially those living alone at home often face with the risk of accidents . An important part of the problems faced by the elderly home accidents constituted. Physiological changes and dementia as well as some chronic diseases, norooftalmalojik findings, progressive hearing loss, posture, balance and gait disturbances and sensory changes, has led to increased risk of accidents. The elderly, the most important preventive safety applications, one of the age-related physiological deficiency in developing corrective to troubleshoot instruments (hearing aid, glasses, etc.. ) Usage as a domestic accident may lead to removal of conditions must be determined. Therefore, in recent years in elderly home safety and home safety inspection and control increased the importance of the list. In this context, is widely used in the field of health inspection and control lists, and application tools are the most important ergonomic evaluation. 3-Explict Statemnet Of The Study Objective Including Operational Definition: This study used a home safety check list and the elderly living at home in our country, the security situation in the house and emerged with aging in terms of accident risks in order to examine the status of housing are planned. Sample Groups: Sample 1:The elderly who is living in the city Sample 2:The elderly who is living in the rural areas Variables: Age This variables;the elderly who is living in the city Gender and the rural areas used to investigate the Education demograhic datas. Marriage Status Occupational Status House type This variables; the elderly who is living in the city Private roomsand the rural areas was used to examine the status of Domestic Availabilitytheir home. Satisfaction: Financial Status: Living Arrengement: This variables;the elderly who is living in the city and the Leisure Activities rural areas was used to examine the their life style. Security Score p: is degree of freedom: In statistics, the number of degrees of freedom is the number of values in the final calculation of a statistic that are free to vary 4-Methodology Section: This descriptive type of study,we selected 512 elder people with random sampling method. 30 of 512 elder person which we select in the city and 182 of 512 which we collect in the rurely areas among december to march 2007 in 7 geographical regions of Turkey in Denizli, Izmir, Ayd? n, Antalya, Mersin, Ankara, Konya, Istanbul, Diyarbakir, Trabzon, Sinop and Zonguldak provinces. In collection of data, as well as demographic information, household status and forms of life questionnaire stating where questions were administered. To determine the level of home security developed by the National Security Council, consisting of 65 questions, Home Security Checklist is used. National Security Council, the score at 1-7 in the perfect home for safety aspects, between 8-14 scores well; 15 and on the scores were assessed as dangerous. A questionnaire containing sociodemographic and National Security Council with the elderly living at home with the method to be verbatim comments will be reviewed their homes Pamukkale University School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation was completed by senior students. Chi-square test was used for evaluating data. 5-Data Analysis Section PearsonÃ¢â¬â¢s chi-square (? ) test is the best-known of several chi square test Ã¢â¬â statistical procedures whose results are evaluated by reference to the chi square distrubition. Its properties were first investigated by Karl Pearson. In contexts where it is important to make a distinction between the test statistic and its distribution, names similar to Pearson ? -squared test or statistic are used. It tests a null hypothesis stating that the frequency distrubition of certain ev ents observed in a sample is consistent with a particular theoretical distribution. The events considered must be mutually exclusive and have total probability 1. A common case for this is where the events each cover an outcome of a categorial variable. A simple example is the hypothesis that an ordinary six-sided dia is Ã¢â¬Å"fairÃ¢â¬ , i. e. , all six outcomes are equally likely to occur. PearsonÃ¢â¬â¢s chi-square is the original and most widely-used chi-square test. Definition PearsonÃ¢â¬â¢s chi-square is used to assess two types of comparison: tests of goodness of fit and tests of independence. A test of goodness of fit establishes whether or not an observed frequency distrubition differs from a theoretical distribution. A test of independence assesses whether paired observations on two variables, expressed in a contingency tables, are independent of each other Ã¢â¬â for example, whether people from different regions differ in the frequency with which they report that they support a political candidate. You read "Analysis of Home Safety of the Elderly Living in City and Rural Areas" in category "Papers" The first step in the chi-square test is to calculate the chi-square statistics. In order to avoid ambiguity, the value of the test-statistic is denoted by X2 rather than ? 2: this also serves as a reminder that the distribution of the test statistic is not exactly that of a chi-square random variable. However some authors do use the ? 2 notation for the test statistic. An exact test which does not rely on using the approximate ? 2 distribution is FisherÃ¢â¬â¢s exact test ,this is significantly more accurate in evaluating the significance level of the test, especially with small numbers of observation. The chi-square statistic is calculated by finding the difference between each observed and theoretical frequency for each possible outcome, squaring them, dividing each by the theoretical frequency, and taking the sum of the results. A second important part of determining the test statistic is to define the degrees of freedom of the test: this is essentially the number of observed frequencies adjusted for the effect of using some of those observations to define the Ã¢â¬Å"theoretical frequenciesÃ¢â¬ . Results: 11. 2% of the elderly living in the city , 14. 4% of the elderly living in rural areas whose age is 80 and over age in the range TABLE 1:Examination of demografic data for elderly people living in the city and in rural areas Variables | CITY | RURAL | | | | | |Age | | | |65-69 age | | | |70-79 age | | | |; 80 age | | | | | | | |Gender | | | | | n % | n % | | | | | | |171 51. 8 |78 42. 8 | | |122 36. 9 |78 42. | | |37 11. 2 |26 14. 3 | |Woman | 189 57. 3 |107 58. 8 | |Man |141 42. 7 |45 41. 2 | |EDUCATION | | | |Literacy does not know | 19. 1 19. 1 |61 33. | |Literate | | | |Primary School |37. 3 37. 3 |82 45. 1 | | |10. 3 10. 3 |9 4. 9 | |Ã Middle School |16. 7 16. 7 |16 8. 8 | | | | | |High school |9. 1 9. 1 |9 4. | |University |7. 6 7. 6 |5 2. 7 | |Marriage Status | | | |Single | 43 13 |18 9. 9 | |Married |249 75. 5 |150 82. 4 | | |38 11. 5 |14 7. | |Ã Divorced | | | |Occupational Status | | | | | | | |Ã Works |294 89 |154 84. 6 | | |36 11 |28 15. 4 | |Not working / Retired | | | TABLE 2: An analysis of the homes of elderly living in rural areas and in the city Variables | CITY | RURAL | | | | | | | |House type | | | | | | n % | n % | p | | | | | | |Detached | 128 36. 8 | 157 96. 3 | | | | | | | |Ã Apartment |202 61. 2 |25 13. 7 |0. 001 | | | | | | |Private rooms | | | | |Yes | 211 63. 9 |98 53. 8 | | |No |41 12. 4 |46 25. 3 | | |Have shared |78 33. 9 |38 20. 9 |0. 001 | |Domestic availability | | | | |Good | 218 66. 1 |106 58. | | |Bad |112 33. 9 |76 42. 7 |0. 05 | |Satisfaction | | | | |Satisfied | 233 71 |107 58. 8 | | | | | | | |Ã Not satisfied |97 29. 4 |75 41. 2 |0. 07 | | | | | | |Financial Situation | | | | |Self-sufficie nt | 257 77. 9 |109 59. 9 | | | | | | | |Ã Children looking |56 17 |52 28. 6 |0. 0001 | | |17 5. 1 |1 11. 5 | | |Ã Relatives looking | | | | Table 3 The examination of the life style of elderly living in rural areas and in the city |Variables | CITY | RURAL | | | | | | | |Living arrangement | | | | | | | | | |Ã Single | | | | | | | | |Ã With his wife | | | | | | | | | |Ã With relatives | | | | |Leisure activities | | | | | | n % | n % | p | | | | | | | | | | | | |59 17. 9 |30 16. 5 | | | | | |0. 5 | | |196 59. 4 |112 61. 5 | | | |75 22. 7 |40 22 | | | | | | | |Ã Participation is | 130 39. 4 | 48 26. 4 | | | |200 60. 6 |134 73. 4 |0. 03 | |Ã Accession No | | | | | | | | | |Security score | | | | |Excellent | 7 2. 1 | 0. 5 | | |Ã Ã Well |76 23. 0 |27 14. 8 |0. 027 | |Ã Bad |247 74. 9 |154 84. 6 | | The information about situation of old peoples houses are presented in Table 2. About %59,4 percent of old people living in cities, and %61,5 percent of old people living in rural areas stated that they live with their husbands/wifes together. When results of Home Security and Control list are inspected; mean number of old people living in cities is 20. 61Ã ±8. 18, while mean number of old people living in rural areas is 25,16Ã ±9,59. About %74,9 percentage of houses of people living in cities are detected bad in security criterion, %23 are considered good and %2,1 are perfect. In rural areas however, %84,6 are detected bad, %14,8 are good and %0,5 are perfect. (Table 3) Debate: Every year, many old people get injured by an accident in their own houses, or near it. Most of injuries are caused by preventable dangers. Using house security and control list with regular periods, gives chance to value condition again, which leads possibility to make those dangers and risks obsolote. In our study, old people living in city and rural areas are found similiar by means of age and gender. This result shows that,HSCL results are not affected this two factors. Educational status of these two groups were examined, the higher the educational level of those living in cities and thus are better home security scores were observed. In our study, 86. 3% of those living in rural areasÃ¢â¬â¢ reputation continued living in their houses Ã and 53. 8%of living in rural areas whose have a special room ,we have been identified. Proportion of people living in houses in the city (38. 8%) lower than those living in rural areas, although the cities have the people in the private room rate is higher (69. 9%). We think that it is significant to consider this situation, while arranging house by means of security. According to home safety checklist,reaching domestic usability for both elderly groups have similiar charecteristics,the average score was not effective on. However, a higher proportion of elderly living in rural areas in the (41. 2%) stated that they are not satisfied with our home security-related problems that indicate a large size. 40. 1% of those living in rural areas in need of financial support to someone else, in protection from danger at home to prevent the necessary ergonomic regulations is an important financial problem. In our study, we have control in the city (74. 9%) and of the houses in rural areas (84. %) a large proportion of unsafe and risky as to fall hazard was observed. For those living in the city, to live in the apartment, the financial situation is good to be home and satisfied with the condition are important factors in domestic security. For old people li ving in rural areas however, having poor education, living in a private house and being financially dependent raises the security score, and leads danger for security of people. Our results are also compatible with literature The surver used in our study, includes the different characteristics of house and different activities made in house, which allows to evaluate and be prepared against accident risks under each sub-topic. For old people living in rural areas however, having poor education, living in a private house and being financially dependent raises the security score, and leads danger for security of people. Our results are also compatible with literature . The surver used in our study, includes the different characteristics of house and different activities made in house, which allows to evaluate and be prepared against accident risks under each sub-topic. (1,2) %74. 9 percent of people living in cities and %86 percent of people living in rural areas have bad security score, which shows they are unprotected agains various accidents and falls. Those risks are similiar, both for old people living in apartments and private houses. Of each chapter house in terms of accident risk assessment and risk profile will reveal its relation with problems which occur with aging also are thought to be investigated. Moreover, determining the injury accident record form is important for audit and control systems. In light of all these records and data will be at home with ergonomic regulations reduce the risk of accidents increasing aging, the elderly and more healthy life with a higher level of quality of life can continue to take appropriate measures are required. 6-Ethical Consideration and Limitations: While we are doing a research on the elderly to learn their life,we respect their private life. So, we take care of shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be revealed their names and other personel information. 7-Research Results and Recommendations: In line with the results of our study, home security, the importance of quality of life is emphasized once again. Ergonomic and architectural creation of suitable habitat many risk eliminating the factors, will reduce the risk of injury. In this context, the health staff by producing a joint project with the architects of the houses in the community who live a healthy life, suitable for all individuals, especially the elderly are thought to be present. Also in this issue of local government, civil society organizations and government to develop policies and strategic plans are required. 8-Reference: www. korhek. org http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/PearsonÃ¢â¬â¢s_chi-square_test How to cite Analysis of Home Safety of the Elderly Living in City and Rural Areas, Papers
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about theLimitations of the Project for Effort and Planning. Answer: Limitations: During the research project, it has been realized that a lot of time, effort and planning is required in order to design and analyze data that have to be gathered from varied sources. Apart from this, a great deal of fieldwork is required to prepare the questionnaire data as well as to save the expenditure of the project by not hiring external parties for interview sessions. Concerning all these, there are some limitations that the researches have faced. Chief among them all is the limitation of time since we had to focus on various aspects of the caf and had to consider the business strategies of FB industry as a whole in a limited period. Although the researchers believe that their collection of data and interview have enquired into all potential details some more time would have improved their qualitative research as they would have been able to prepare a deeper questionnaire covering many other aspects that might have been left out here (Merriam and Tisdell 2015). Overall, the st udy could have been more detailed by concentrating on restaurant industry of Singapore at large in a greater span. In fact, the researchers had tried their best to encompass the innumerable characteristics of the FB industry but the financial limitation became a great factor of hindrance (Rudestam and Newton 2014). Indeed, we needed more amount of money to be invested in the project and also it was not possible for us to give away the hard earned financial incentives for the sake of the research study. The financial inadequacy might have affected the primary data collection by limiting the size of sample collected although the sample provided in this project is believed to be sufficient by the researchers (Wilson 2014). Besides, the lack of money has narrowed the scope of fieldwork and inspecting the quality of food offered in the other similar caf restaurants like Braseiro. In order to find out the possible measures should be taken by Braseiro to compete with the rapidly changing m arket trends and taste of the consumers it was necessary to conduct an extensive research on presently preferred cuisines, contemporary restaurant interior and premium quality of service. However, unfortunately, both time and capital were insufficient to go through all these; the lack of primary research in these areas may bar the study to provide a complete picture. Due to these inadequacies, it had been compulsory to rely on the secondary data looking at the literature (Field 2015). Although we believe that, the literature section assesses the entire essential points mentioned just above along with the importance of companionship while dining and the arrangement of a proper yet light entertainment that would appropriately accompany the process of having food it too has some certain limitations. In the first place, the secondary data has been unable to refer particularly to the case of Braseiro and therefore, it discusses the specifications of a fine dining restaurant as a whole. S econdly, the secondary data may appear unfashionable to a degree since most part of the literature section dates back 10 years ago or even more (Field 2015); hence, possibility of somewhat discrepancy can be there as the case of Braseiro needed to be analyzed in contemporary light. Nonetheless, the researchers have tried their best to exploit all the resources at their disposal and put forth the most appropriate approach to the given problem. References: Field, T., 2015. The benefits and limitations of quantitative data collection to the literature review data collection. Merriam, S.B. and Tisdell, E.J., 2015.Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. John Wiley Sons. Rudestam, K.E. and Newton, R.R., 2014.Surviving your dissertation: A comprehensive guide to content and process. Sage Publications. Wilson, J., 2014.Essentials of business research: A guide to doing your research project. Sage.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Oil TransnationalÃ¢â¬â¢s, the State and the Spatial Contexts of Local Militancy in Nigeria Essay Example Essay Example
Oil TransnationalÃ¢â¬â¢s, the State and the Spatial Contexts of Local Militancy in Nigeria Essay Example Paper Oil TransnationalÃ¢â¬â¢s, the State and the Spatial Contexts of Local Militancy in Nigeria Essay Introduction The contemporary map of conflicts in Africa does not showcase Nigeria- and for a good reason: there are no international peace keeping forces there. The main theatres of conflict on the continent have for the better part of the last two decades been the Great Lakes region, the Horn of Africa, and parts of West Africa. These include countries such as: Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Somalia, Sudan, Sierra Leone and CÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½te dÃ¢â¬â¢Ivoire. To the Horn of Africa sample must be added Eritrea, which despite having secured independence from Ethiopia, still has unresolved border issues with that country. However, as far as armed conflicts are concerned, Nigeria does have some experience Ã¢â¬â if one recalls that between 1967 and 1970, only a few years after gaining independence from Britain (in 1960), the country was engulfed in a bloody civil war. It cannot be reasonably assumed that the Nigerian government and people have done all they should to prevent the tensions and Ã¢â¬Ëcivil disturbancesÃ¢â¬â¢ which frequently erupt, or have become endemic, in different parts of the country from escalating into Ã¢â¬ËbleedingÃ¢â¬â¢ conflicts. Such tensions include the restiveness in the Niger Delta (NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s oil and gas province) Ã¢â¬â a region that has since the early 1990s witnessed an almost unbroken orgy of violence and militarization. Oil TransnationalÃ¢â¬â¢s, the State and the Spatial Contexts of Local Militancy in Nigeria Essay Body Paragraphs The Niger Delta lies in the south of the country and consists of nine states and nearly 70,000 square kilometers of land and waterways. This area accounts for over 90 per cent of NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s known gas and oil reserves, which in turn accounted for nearly 80 per cent of total government revenues. As NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic powerhouse, the Delta is important to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic standing, as well as to the politicians who benefit from the incoming revenue. Mismanagement of oil revenues since independence, corruption, the failure to redistribute oil wealth, the utter lack of development in the Delta, and environmental damage arising from oil related exploration related activities have hardened the resolve of those living in the region to agitate for change, and increased popular support for those groups fighting for a better deal. Militancy has grown in the Delta in response to the continued lack of attention to the basic needs of the population: Social instability, po or local governance, competition for economic resources and environmental degradation has taken a toll . . . . The delta today is a place of frustrated expectation and deep-rooted mistrust . . . [where] [l]ong years of neglect and conflict have fostered a siege mentality (UNDP, 2006, p. 16)1. The grievances of those living in the Delta are well founded. The population suffers from environmental contamination resulting from the operations of oil companies and the oil bunkering (illegal tapping of oil pipelines) of armed groups. Oil spills and gas flaring have negatively affected agricultural land, water sources, and air quality. In return, the population has received very little from the government, which benefits from the high revenues earned from selling oil overseas. Legally, the population has no control over the oil that sits beneath their land, and no claim to the profits accrued through its sale. The percentage of revenue received by oil-producing states has increased to 13 pe r cent from less than 2 per cent under military rule, but this funding goes to state coffers, with few visible signs of it being spent to improve the lives of people in local communities. Although the incidence of poverty is said to have declined since 1996 in the Delta (UNDP, 2006, p. 58)2, the lack of roads, the limited health care and education facilities, high unemployment, and limited future prospects underline the neglect by the state and federal governments. While there are legitimate grievances in the Delta, not all violence can be equated with a fight for justice, development, or equitable distribution of oil revenues. The Delta has witnessed the emergence of a plethora of armed groups over the past decades. Some of these groups agitate for change in the political situation and in the distribution of resources. More often, the push is not for democratic governance or an even distribution of oil revenues, but rather a call for the right to all oil revenues for oil-producing areas. In other words, it is a claim for resource control and financial revenue to be ceded to the oil producing states where decisions about distribution can then be made, thereby taking this decision-making power out of the hands of the federal government. Other groups merely take advantage of the lack of law and order in the area to engage in criminal activities and oil bunkering aimed at profit or territorial control. Although many groups use the legitimate problems in the Delta to justify their actions, no group has come forward with a political and economic plan of its own on how to resolve the concerns of the Delta communities. Given the difficulty in obtaining information on armed groups, as well as the fluidity with which they evolve, it is difficult to obtain an exact figure for the number of these groups active in the Delta today or accurate information about their activities. The numbers continue to change as groups emerge, merge, or disappear. While smaller groups certa inly have an impact at the local level, there are perhaps only a handful of groups large enough to affect the dynamics of the region as a whole. The most prominent group currently active in the Niger Delta is the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND). Other active groups include the Coalition for Militant Action in the Niger Delta (COMA), the Joint Revolutionary Council (JRC), the Niger Delta PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Volunteer Force (NDPVF), and a number of cult groups, such as the Outlaws and Icelander. Armed groups have increased their use of violent tactics over the past year in the form of kidnappings, battles with security forces, clashes with one another, and car bombs, which is a more recent tactic. Such groups are demonstrating increasingly sophisticated tactics and weaponry, raising concerns about future violence. Those groups with more purely economic motives have joined the fray by tapping into the illegal oil-bunkering trade and kidnapping international oil and construction workers for ransom. The response of the government has been an increase in the militarization of its approach to the Delta crisis, but this strategy has not yielded the dividends intended. Instead, this heavy-handed approach seems to have spurred on the armed groups, solidified their commitment to armed struggle, encouraged recruitment, oil pipeline Vandalization, and raised public support for some of these groups. Ã¢â¬Å"Those who proclaim the death of sovereignty misread the history. The nation state has a keen instinct for survival and has so far adapted to new challenges, even the challenge of globalizationÃ¢â¬ (Krasner, 2001: 20). He also argues that globalization is not a new challenge or phenomena. Even though I agree that globalization is not something of today, the question that remains is whether contemporary globalization is likely to have a different impact on the nation state then that of the past? For todayÃ¢â¬â¢s globalization distinguishes itself fr om that of the past in terms of rapid communication, market liberalization and the global integration of goods, services and production. Taking the example of the European supremacy era in world trade, and its relation with the Far East, we can speak of a global trade and exchange of goods and services. This explains the difference between modern globalization and that of the past. Even though it might not be appropriated to compare the ancient world with todayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern nation states, as we did not have independent and sovereign states then; we had independent regions. For example, China was not dependent on economical relations with Europe in the past; nor was Europe on China. But today there is an increasingly growing interdependency between them. The nation states are compelled to build relations with other states in order to sell their goods, services and develop a stronger and larger economy. So due to this interdependency we can undermine one of the three-fold capacitie s of a sovereign state -the absolute freedom from any external force, which shapes the conduct of the nation states. Although states are not literally forced to modify their conduct toward the international society or other states, it is in their interest to do so. Part of the sovereignty is also the ability of a state to solve its domestic problems on its own. But since problems and threats are getting more globalized, it is almost impossible for a state to act alone and entirely independent. Taking the international crime as an example, letÃ¢â¬â¢s assume there is a weapon trade between two criminal organizations rooted in Germany and in The Netherlands. In order to demolish this crime network The Netherlands is dependent on the assistance of Germany and vice versa. This undermines the second notion of sovereignty, which is absolute supremacy over internal affairs within its territory. Also seen from a philosophical point of view, there is a demising process in the sovereignty of nation state. The emergence of International Human Rights Organization, which is based on the Kantian philosophy that views the world as a community of free individuals; a community where nations and borders are no longer relevant or of any meaning. According to this philosophy one can speak of a world, which is going toward a global civil society. It might be worth mentioning what the notion of global civil society stands for. Originally the notion of civil society referred to, or was characterized by, a social contract. Ã¢â¬Å"Civil society was a type of state on the We will write a custom essay sample on Oil TransnationalÃ¢â¬â¢s, the State and the Spatial Contexts of Local Militancy in Nigeria Essay Example specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Oil TransnationalÃ¢â¬â¢s, the State and the Spatial Contexts of Local Militancy in Nigeria Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Oil TransnationalÃ¢â¬â¢s, the State and the Spatial Contexts of Local Militancy in Nigeria Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Franz Kline essays Among the leading painters of post-World War II Abstract Expressionist movement, Franz Kline developed his own highly personal form of art based more on spontaneous expression in abstract design of the artists psychic states.1 Abstract expressionism saw representation as the exact opposite of their main aim in painting. Formal issues such as color, lines, and shapes without recognizable representation is what Kline, like many other abstract expressionists, strove to portray in their paintings. They were individuals that were foraging their own way into the art world. Mainly an artist of impact, Klines work was forceful and boldly dramatic, which characterized his aggressiveness and raw energy. Best known for his robust black-and-white abstractions, his zealous brushwork seemed to manifest the energy and gestures produced in the act of painting. In this paper I will argue how Klines unique form, also referred to as action painting, was affected by his background and other artists, how his work was not influenced or represented Chinese calligraphy, and why he should be set aside from other The Pennsylvania native originally was a representational painter, that used a style mixed of Cubism and Social Realism. He attempted to capture the energy of city life while going to school at Boston University and Heatherlys School of Art in London, before settling in New York. Up until the 1940s Kline painted urban scenes and figures in a conventional, realist style. A couple years after moving to New York, he sparked an interest in abstraction and reduced the elements of his old style. However, the turning point of his career came once he enlarged some black-and-white drawings through a projector, and recognized the expressive power to which his style possessed in large scale, and thus decided to abandon representation all together. Althou...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Law and Society - Essay Example He expounded on several approaches to conflict management and then justifies why his movement has chosen the one he calls, Ã¢â¬Å"direct actionÃ¢â¬ . In this regard, the essay will be used to analyze the conflict management approaches presented by Donald Black. Forms of Conflict Management Discuss and define the 3 approaches: From the lecture notes on Law as Social Control, there are three general approaches to resolving conflict are categorized into unilateral, bilateral and through third party. The unilateral form actually focuses on toleration where it was noted that the victim is perceived to be socially inferior or estranged from the offender. The bilateral form is parallel with applying negotiation techniques where both parties are deemed of equal status and seek some form of agreement or arrangement to settle their conflicts that would be amenable to both. Finally, if despite all resolutions techniques have been exhausted and conflicts remain unresolved, the third-party sett lement form requires seeking a neutral third party (not affiliated to any of the offending nor offended parties) to evaluate the issue and arrive at the most appropriate solution. Description of Circumstances for Application of Conflict Management Forms Using Donald BlackÃ¢â¬â¢s article, entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Crime as Social ControlÃ¢â¬ , the forms of conflict management are: toleration, negotiation, settlement, law and self-help. Self-help was defined by Black (1983) as Ã¢â¬Å"the expression of a grievance by unilateral aggression such as personal violence or property destructionÃ¢â¬ (p. 34). Law, on the other hand, was noted as a form of governmental social control (Black, 1983, p. 41). His focus was to present law and self-help as forms of conflict management that functions more as social control mechanisms. Using these forms of conflict management in the case of King, from the circumstances relayed in his letter, he clearly noted the application of a rational four step process in his nonviolent campaign in conflict management, to wit: Ã¢â¬Å"collection of the facts to determine whether injustices exist; negotiation; self-purification; and direct actionÃ¢â¬ (King, 1963, p. 1). But evidently, the form of unilateral form of conflict management was applied when toleration was upheld for the longest time. King averred that Ã¢â¬Å"we have waited for more than 340 years for our constitutional and God given rightsÃ¢â¬ (King, 1963, p. 3). Since he acknowledged that colored people have been discriminated and prejudiced for so long exemplifying the inferior status socially imposed, this form was therefore eventually rejected as effective and applicable. The bilateral form of conflict management had been applied when King noted that negotiations were apparently tried but proven ineffective. As proven, there were negotiations (or supposedly agreed upon settlements) made between the leaders of the BirminghamÃ¢â¬â¢s economic community and the Negro citizens in t erms of removing racial signs in merchantsÃ¢â¬â¢ stores, for instance. Apparently, these leaders and merchants failed to comply with the promise as few signs were briefly removed but return eventually and others were not removed at all (King, 1963, p. 2). Therefore, ordinary negotiations were proven to be ineffective and were arbitrarily rejected by King. Likewise, the direct action through demonstrations were a call for further negotiations possible seeking third party infusion to resolve the conflict by invoking public protests to make others aware that there is a need to bring justice and equality to the oppressed. This option was regarded as the best course of action for reasons identified and justified below. Law intercedes in KingÃ¢â¬â¢s quest for conflict resolution through admitting that their direct action do no violate any persisting law or